Having a heart attack is less likely in younger people, and the risk increases as a person ages. People should call 911 immediately if a person has symptoms relating to a heart attack.
Although having a heart attack is uncommon when a person is young, the American College of Cardiology states that people under 40 are now experiencing heart attacks more often, with a 2% increase over the last decade.
A heart attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs when there is a loss of blood supply to the heart muscle, usually due to a blockage. When this happens, the heart does not get enough oxygen and blood.
Without treatment, the damage to the heart muscle becomes irreversible and leads to a heart attack.
This article covers the risk of a heart attack based on a person’s age.
Statistics from the
However, heart attacks can happen to anyone. An article from 2019 notes that the incidence of heart attacks is rising in those under the age of 40.
Based on the findings from a
The researchers note that compared to men, young women were more likely to have a history of conditions that can increase the chance of a heart attack, including:
However, they were less likely to smoke.
The researchers also note that young women are more likely to have health insurance, which means they may be more likely to seek medical attention, resulting in higher hospitalization rates.
Based on 322,523 people, the
The authors noted that, compared to older adults, those who experienced a heart attack under the age of 45 were more likely to:
- be male
- have obesity
- have a family history of premature heart attacks
Some of these changes include:
- A build-up of fatty deposits: Fat can build up on the artery walls. This will narrow the coronary arteries, which supply blood and oxygen to the heart. This condition is called atherosclerosis.
- Hardening of the arteries: As a person ages, the arteries become harder. When the arteries are not as flexible as they should be, the risk of having a heart attack could increase.
- Thickened heart walls: The walls of the heart may thicken, leading to increased heart size. The volume of blood reduces despite the larger size of the heart.
- Weak heart valves: The heart contains four valves that work to prevent blood from moving in the wrong direction. As a person ages, these valves may become stiffer or weaker, making it hard for the heart to control blood flow.
- Increased sodium sensitivity: Some people may become more sensitive to sodium while others may not. The NIA reports that an increase in sodium sensitivity can increase a person’s risk of a heart attack.
- Age: As people get older, their chances of heart attack increases.
- Sex: Males are more prone to heart attack compared to females who have not reached menopause. However, this risk is equal between males and females who have reached menopause.
- genetics: People who have family members that have had a heart attack may have a higher chance of having a heart attack.
Other risk factors may include:
- high blood cholesterol
- high blood pressure
- physical inactivity
- having overweight or obesity
- an unhealthy diet that does not include foods containing vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients
The AHA also notes that, compared to white people, heart disease is more likely to develop in those who are:
- African American
- Mexican American
- American Indian
- native Hawaiian
- Asian American
Many factors play a role in high rates of heart disease in historically marginalized populations. These can include:
- socioeconomic disparities
- a lack of access to healthcare
- discrimination in healthcare
Learn more about heart disease in African American populations here.
To reduce the risk of having a heart attack, people can try:
- Stopping smoking: the
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institutereports that chemicals in tobacco smoke can destroy the function of the heart as well as its blood vessels. This could lead to atherosclerosis and increase the risk of a heart attack. Avoiding smoke can dramatically boost the heart’s performance as well as other vital organs in the body.
- Avoiding passive smoke: the
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says that passive, or secondhand smoking, can increase the risk of a heart attack.
- Reducing their cholesterol level: Having high cholesterol levels, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, can increase the chance of heart attacks. A person can speak with a doctor to find out the best treatment plan for lowering high cholesterol levels in the body.
- Maintaining normal blood pressure: High blood pressure could alter structures in the heart that decrease its efficiency. To help regulate their blood pressure, a person can take medication, engage in physical activity, and eat a healthy diet.
- Managing stress: recently
researchhas proven that chronic stress is a risk factor for heart disease and, consequently, a heart attack.
- Getting regular exercise: the
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)recommends that adults utilize at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week.
- Maintaining a moderate weight. A
2021 reportpointed out that a wider waist circumference is a great factor in having a heart attack. People should try to achieve and maintain a moderate weight.
Find out about how to improve heart health:
Heart attacks are medical emergencies. Call 911 or emergency help if a person is experiencing a heart attack.
Heart attack symptoms may differ in each individual. However, the major symptoms
- chest pain
- trouble breathing
- neck, jaw, or throat pain
- upper back pain
Females may experience different heart attack symptoms. Similar to males, chest pain is the
- pressure, fullness, pain, or squeezing in the center of the chest
- pain in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach
- shortness of breath
- cold sweat
Learn more about signs of a heart attack in females.
Heart attacks can occur at any age. However, the risk increases as a person gets older. Over the past decade, the prevalence of heart attacks in those under 40 appears to have increased.
Being male or having a family history of heart disease can contribute to the chances of having a heart attack.
A person can alter some risk factors such as changing their smoking habits, eating habits, levels of physical activity, and alcohol consumption.
People should speak with a doctor to find out how to reduce their chance of having a heart attack.